These various Buddhist hand positions are called Mudras and are thousands of years old. These mudras are of great importance for the meaning of Buddha statues.
This gesture is the mudra of witness (earth-touching)
The Namaskara mudra is the gesture of greeting, prayer and adoration.
The Abhaya mudra is the gesture of no-fear.
This gesture recalls the Buddha’s first sermon.
The Varada mudra signifies offering, welcome, charity, giving and compassion.
The Vitarka mudra is the gesture of discussion and transmission of Buddhist teaching.